What is Staff Training And Development?


By: Site Engineer, Staff

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Training is a process by which an individual improves his skills and also develop new ones.

It is a technique of making a job incumbent more effective. It is there, a method of increasing the skill and knowledge of an employee to be able to perform a job more effectively.

After the employee has been recruited, selected and inducted, he must be trained to adequately fit into the job and the organization.

It could be difficult to get somebody who is a perfect fit at the point of hiring. He, therefore, needs to be trained after hiring to achieve this. In any organization, trained personnel is able to perform efficiently. This improvement in efficiency indirectly transforms to lower costs and hence higher profits. So any amount spent on training should be considered as money well spent.

Therefore, we need to know the importance of training, limitation of training and types of training.

Importance of Training

The problems of retrenchment, dismissals, structural unemployment, under-employment, early retirement, redundancy, and layoffs can all be minimized through training. Many industrial strikes, lock-outs and open conflicts that culminate in enormous losses to the organization result from manpower inefficiency.

The ability for management to forestall on-coming crises or to remove bottlenecks in production, sales and marketing, and finance can be improved through manpower development.

Some of the advantages of personnel training and development are:

  • Rising standards of performance to higher levels.
  • Preparing workers for higher or new functions.
  • Increase productivity through efficiency.
  • Improved quality of work and work morale.
  • Development of new skills, knowledge, and attitude.
  • Correct and more efficient use of now tools, machines methods, and procedures.
  • Ensuring continue performance and growth of the organization.
  • Reduction of waste, accidents, labor turnover, lateness, absenteeism, strikes, and retrenchment.
  • Successful fighting of obsolescence in skills, knowledge, and techniques.

Limitation of Training

Despite the advantages of training enumerated above, training also has its own limitations.

These include:

  • The organization may lose some of the staff after they might have been trained. This means that the training expenditure is wasted. To forestall this, it is necessary that the employee signs a bond before he commences his training. The bond should state categorically the number of years the employee would serve the organization after the training.
  • It involves a lot of money. While this may not be a problem for big organizations, it certainly is too small and medium scale enterprises with little financial resources.
  • It may also interfere with the routine work of the organization.

However, it is necessary to state that despite these limitations, training employees is a necessity for every organization. The advantages of training far outweigh the disadvantages.

Any amount spent to improve the efficiency of employees, reduce production costs and eventually increase the net profit of the organization should be money well spent.

It is also advisable that instead of a retrenching worker whose performance is considered as inadequate, it would be to the best interest of the firm if such staff can be trained to improve their performance.

It may be cheaper for the organization by training this category of personnel of the long-run.

Types of Training

There are three broad types of training which can be identified:

1. On-The-Job Training

This involves assigning a specific job to the employee that is to be trained. He is then instructed by a more experienced worker and shown how to do the job.

It is training done using the employee’s working environment. As he stays longer in the environment, the employee becomes more familiar with the nitty-gritty of the job and gradually he masters his trade.

The advantage of this type of training is that it is cheap and simple to operate. In addition, the employee uses his actual place of work and is also indirectly productive to the organization.

2. Off-The-Job Training

This form of training takes place outside the place of work or outside the organization of the employee. It involves giving formal instructions to the employee.

This form of training could cover:

  • Classroom lectures
  • Films and demonstrations
  • Television presentations
  • Case studies
  • Programmed institutions
  • Simulation exercises
  • Attendance at seminars and conferences

3. Apprenticeship Training

This form of training is used in skilled trades, e.g automobile, electronic, and other forms of engineering works, carpentry and so on. An apprentice is not normally considered as a full-time employee of the organization and so he is paid less than the normal worker.


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